The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Has been awarded for "odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system". See the Press Release. Unfortunately the work was not in relation to how odors are percieved in the smellling or "tasting" of wine but its a start. Of course the real challenge to the perception of odors in wine is the influence of autosuggestion; that is the linking of odor descriptors with visual (and other) clues.